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I&C Retrofit Hub ━━

Your Essential Guide

Step into the ever-evolving world of Industrial and Commercial (I&C) Retrofits with SNRG. Whether you’re new to SNRG or have been with us for a while, this page is your gateway to understanding the key themes and terminology associated with retrofitting existing I&C infrastructure.

We’re all about getting to the core of what matters to you: energy efficiency, sustainability, solar power, batteries, air source heat pumps, and cutting-edge low-carbon tech. We would like you to think of our hub as a personal guide packed with insightful information, hands-on advice, and stories from the real world to help shape your sustainable choices.

Ready to unlock the potential of I&C retrofits? Let SNRG be your guide. Explore our hub page to give yourself a headstart with the information you need to make informed decisions about your I&C infrastructure.

1. Grid Constraints (Residential and I&C)

The rise in solar energy adoption is a driving force behind the renewable energy revolution, yet an unseen challenge awaits – grid constraints. This congestion risks delaying access to clean energy for many. But there’s hope! SmartGrids offer a smart solution by managing energy flow. Explore the nuances of grid constraints, their effects, and how SmartGrids are laying the groundwork for a brighter, more sustainable tomorrow.

2. Future Homes Standard (Residential)

The future of housing is here, and it’s green. The Future Homes Standard is set to transform new builds in 2025. This initiative rewrites the rulebook for new builds, demanding ultra-low energy use, zero carbon emissions, and renewable energy integration. Part L outlines the specifics, focusing on airtightness, insulation, and efficient heating/cooling systems. So, how can you adapt? Explore innovative materials, smart technologies, and renewable sources like solar. Get ready to shape the future, one energy-efficient home at a time.
Solar Panels

What is the Future Homes Standard and what does it mean for new homes?

SNRG SmartGrid microgrid 24hr animation

How Can Developers Meet the Future Homes Standard?

Reasons To Retrofit Your UK Commercial Building

What are the future homes standard requirements?

3. Low-carbon Technologies (Residential and I&C)

We are in an era of low-carbon technologies, changing the construction landscape to lessen our impact on the planet. Picture a future that’s energy efficient, reduces emissions, and is committed to sustainability. As advocates of these advancements, we thoroughly explore low-carbon solutions. These aren’t just trends; they’re the building blocks of a greener future. Explore our resources, soak up the insights, and join us as we construct a brighter future, one eco-friendly project after another.
How Retrofitting Solar Panels Helps Reduce Carbon Emissions

What are low-carbon emitting technologies?

Low-carbon technologies in construction

4. Solar, Batteries, EV Chargers and Air Source Heat Pumps

Transform your commercial building into a self-sufficient space by storing clean energy, charging your electric fleet, and heating your environment efficiently. It is an exciting vision that can become a reality with the dynamic combination of solar panels, batteries, EV chargers, and air source heat pumps. Explore our dedicated guides on each technology, discover cost-saving possibilities, and unlock a future fuelled by smart innovation. Let’s build a greener tomorrow, one business at a time.



battery storage

Commercial Battery Storage for Solar PV

Aerial View of Shopping Center with Solar Panels and Parking Lot

How Does A Solar Battery Work?

EV Chargers

ev charging

Electric car charging – how it works and how much it costs

ev charging banner

Benefits of EV Charging Infrastructure at Work

home EV charging

Electric Vehicle Charging Points for Your Business


5. Funding low-carbon technologies

The SNRG SmartGrid is an innovative low-carbon technology that delivers clean, renewable, efficient energy and reduces bills. Transitioning to such a solution usually requires investment and ongoing costs, but here, too, SNRG has a solution. The SNRG Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) covers all upfront costs and subsequent maintenance bills. Find out more below.

Commonly used terms

Term Explanation
Activated Shelf Life The period of time, at a specified temperature, that a charged battery can be stored before its capacity falls to an unusable level
Ampere‐Hour (Ah/AH) A measure of the flow of current (in amperes) over one hour; used to measure battery capacity.
Annual Solar Savings The annual solar savings of a solar building is the energy savings attributable to a solar feature relative to the energy requirements of a non‐solar building.
Battery Two or more electrochemical cells enclosed in a container and electrically interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating voltage and current levels. Under common usage, the term battery also applies to a single cell if it constitutes the entire electrochemical storage system.
Battery Available Capacity The total maximum charge, expressed in ampere‐hours, that can be withdrawn from a cell or battery under a specific set of operating conditions including discharge rate, temperature, initial state of charge, age, and cut‐off voltage.
Battery Capacity The maximum total electrical charge, expressed in ampere‐hours, which a battery can deliver to a load under a specific set of conditions.
Battery Cell The simplest operating unit in a storage battery. It consists of one or more positive electrodes or plates, an electrolyte that permits ionic conduction, one or more negative electrodes or plates, separators between plates of opposite polarity, and a container for all the above.
Battery Energy Storage Energy storage using electrochemical batteries. The three main applications for battery energy storage systems include spinning reserve at generating stations, load leveling at substations, and peak shaving on the customer side of the meter.
BIPV (Building‐Integrated Photovoltaic) A term for the design and integration of photovoltaic (PV) technology into the building envelope, typically replacing conventional building materials. This integration may be in vertical facades, replacing view glass, spandrel glass, or other facade material; into semitransparent skylight systems; into roofing systems, replacing traditional roofing materials; into shading “eyebrows” over windows; or other building envelope systems.
Cell (battery) A single unit of an electrochemical device capable of producing direct voltage by converting chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery usually consists of several cells electrically connected together to produce higher voltages. (Sometimes the terms cell and battery are used interchangeably). Also see photovoltaic (PV) cell.
Charge Rate The current applied to a cell or battery to restore its available capacity. This rate is commonly normalized by a charge control device with respect to the rated capacity of the cell or battery.
Days of Storage The number of consecutive days the stand‐alone system will meet a defined load without solar energy input. This term is related to system availability.
Deep Discharge Discharging a battery to 20% or less of its full charge capacity.
Distributed Systems Systems that are installed at or near the location where the electricity is used, as opposed to central systems that supply electricity to grids. A residential photovoltaic system is a distributed system.
Electrical Grid An integrated system of electricity distribution, usually covering a large area.
Electron Volt (eV) The amount of kinetic energy gained by an electron when accelerated through an electric potential difference of 1 Volt; equivalent to 1.603 x 10^‐19; a unit of energy or work.
Energy The capability of doing work; different forms of energy can be converted into other forms but the total amount of energy remains the same.
EV Electric Vehicle
Grid Lines Metallic contacts fused to the surface of the solar cell to provide a low resistance path for electrons to flow out to the cell interconnect wires
Grid‐Connected System A solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) system in which the PV array acts like a central generating plant, supplying power to the grid
Hybrid System A solar electric or photovoltaic system that includes other sources of electricity generation, such as wind or diesel generators.
I&C Industrial and Commercial
Input Voltage This is determined by the total power required by the alternating current loads and the voltage of any direct current loads. Generally, the larger the load, the higher the inverter input voltage. This keeps the current at levels where switches and other components are readily available.
Insolation The solar power density incident on a surface of stated area and orientation, usually expressed as Watts per square metre or Btu per square foot per hour. See diffuse insolation and direct insolation.
Interconnect A conductor within a module or other means of connection that provides an electrical interconnection between the solar cells
Inverter A device that converts direct current electricity to alternating current either for stand‐alone systems or to supply power to an electricity grid.
Langley (L) Unit of solar irradiance. One gram calorie per square centimeter. 1 L = 85.93 kwh/m2.
Line‐Commutated Inverter An inverter that is tied to a power grid or line. The commutation of power (conversion from direct current to alternating current) is controlled by the power line, so that, if there is a failure in the power grid, the photovoltaic system cannot feed power into the line.
Peak Power Point Operating point of the I‐V (current‐voltage) curve for a solar cell or photovoltaic module where the product of the current value times the voltage value is a maximum.
Peak Sun Hours The equivalent number of hours per day when solar irradiance averages 1,000 w/m2. For example, six peak sun hours means that the energy received during total daylight hours equals the energy that would have been received had the irradiance for six hours been 1,000 w/m2.
Photon A particle of light that acts as an individual unit of energy.
Photovoltaic (PV) Cell The smallest semiconductor element within a PV module to perform the immediate conversion of light into electrical energy (direct current voltage and current). Also called a solar cell.
Power Conditioning The process of modifying the characteristics of electrical power (e.g., for inverting direct current to alternating current).
Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept for providing large amounts of electricity for use on the Earth from one or more satellites in geosynchronous Earth orbit. A very large array of solar cells on each satellite would provide electricity, which would be converted to microwave energy and beamed to a receiving antenna on the ground. There, it would be reconverted into electricity and distributed the same as any other centrally generated power, through a grid
Scribing The cutting of a grid pattern of grooves in a semiconductor material, generally for the purpose of making interconnections.
SNRG SmardGrid The SNRG SmartGrid is a place-based energy system utilising solar PV, battery storage and intelligent energy optimisation, to provide a reliable, cheaper electricity supply, connected to assets such as EV chargers and heat pumps.
Solar Cooling The use of solar thermal energy or solar electricity to power a cooling appliance. Photovoltaic systems can power evaporative coolers (swamp coolers), heat pumps, and air conditioners.
Solar Energy Electromagnetic energy transmitted from the sun (solar radiation). The amount that reaches the earth is equal to one billionth of total solar energy generated, or the equivalent of about 420 trillion kilowatt‐hours.
Solar Resource The amount of solar insolation a site receives, usually measured in kWh/m2/day, which is equivalent to the number of peak sun hours.
Solar Thermal Electric Systems Solar energy conversion technologies that convert solar energy to electricity, by heating a working fluid to power a turbine that drives a generator. Examples of these systems include central receiver systems, parabolic dish, and solar trough.
Stand‐Alone System An autonomous or hybrid photovoltaic system not connected to a grid. May or may not have storage, but most stand‐alone systems require batteries or some other form of storage.
Tracking Array A photovoltaic (PV) array that follows the path of the sun to maximize the solar radiation incident on the PV surface. The two most common orientations are: (1) one axis where the array tracks the sun east to west; and (2) two‐axis tracking where the array points directly at the sun at all times. Tracking arrays use both the direct and diffuse sunlight. Two‐axis tracking arrays capture the maximum possible daily energy.
Volt (V) A unit of electrical force equal to that amount of electromotive force that will cause a steady current of one ampere to flow through a resistance of one ohm.
Voltage The amount of electromotive force, measured in volts, that exists between two points.

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